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Ecological (organic) agriculture is an agricultural system whose goal is to provide consumers with fresh, natural and authentic products. To achieve these goals, ecological agriculture is based on certain principles that in practice are aimed at minimizing the impact on the environment, offering more responsible exploitation of natural resources.

The United States Department of Agriculture gave the following definition to this term: "Ecological agriculture is a production system that excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and additives in animal nutrition."

The main principles of ecological agriculture are:
- protection of the environment;
- maintenance and improvement of soil fertility;
- respect for the health of consumers;
- conservation of biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems;
- recycling and waste processing at maximum level;
- maintaining the integrity of organic agricultural products on all stages, from their production to marketing;
- crop and livestock production in harmony with natural laws;
- obtaining of optimal production, not maximal;
- new and convenient technologies for organic farming,
- growing livestock in accordance with the requirements of each species.

In this kind of system, the cultivation technologies must restore and then maintain the ecological sustainability of agriculture and the environment. Soil fertility is maintained and improved by certain measures that promote maximum biological activity and conservation of resources. The fight against parasites, diseases and pests is carried out through integrated control methods, as well as tillage, crop rotation, the use of beneficial insects to create a balance, thereby contributing to biological diversity.

Cattle in an ecological agricultural system grow in conditions and density according to their needs, being provided with organic food and growing methods that reduce stress, improve their health and prevent diseases.

In this context, not only farmers, but also processors of eco products, as well as food suppliers and distributors have the same goal: to provide consumers with fresh and natural products.

Processing of organic products is based on the following principles:
- restriction to use technological additives;
- restriction to use chemically synthesized additives;
- Prohibition to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs);

While ecological agriculture seeks to maintain contact with its traditional roots and function in harmony with nature, organic processing of foods is often determined by the tastes and culinary preferences of consumers. Thus, in addition to fruits, vegetables and meat products, the category of modern ecological products includes: baby food, wine made from organic grapes, beer, yoghurt and other dairy products, confectionery, bread, breakfast cereals, sausages, canned fruits and vegetables, coffee, tea, etc.

According to the data for 2018, in Moldova the area of land designated for organic farming is 75686.1 ha (3, 9%), and the number of farms and agricultural enterprises in this area is constantly growing.

In this context, the Moldovan government approved a program to promote the "green" economy in the Republic of Moldova for 2018-2020 with a budget of more than one hundred million lei. It includes, among other things, encouraging small and medium-sized enterprises to be environmentally friendly, encouraging farmers to grow organic products and environmental education in schools.